The School of Doctoral Studies of the EU’s Department of Business Management and Economics’ chief orientation faces towards business management’s and economics’ practice, meaning to foster scholars and advisors capable to generating new ways of creating a business environment where human race may develop sustainable common wealth.
Flexibility in learning, independence in study, research with deep impact, outstanding faculty who are leaders in their fields, and the finest resources in academia—these qualities enable BME to offer outstanding doctoral programs and are the main characteristics which distinguish BME from other business and economics schools around the world.
BME has broad and deep ties with executives, scholars, alumni, and other leaders and their organizations worldwide.
The BME maintains an unparalleled global network with research centres and offices in key cities around the world—including Singapore, Beijing, London, Mexico City, Kuala Lumpur, New York, Zurich, Sao Paolo and others—that coordinate research and build local relationships that help weave the DBE into the fabric of the global marketplace.
About 65 percent of our students are from nations elsewhere of the EU, bringing richness and depth of international perspective to our daily case discussions.
Forty-five percent of cases produced by faculty each year deal explicitly with international business issues.
Contributions range from the creation and development of the field of organizational behaviour and marketing to key advances in understanding the nature of leadership, strategy, and decision making.
Each academic year, the faculty authors or co-authors produce more than 200 academic papers, and write a broad array of articles for general business publications; over 23,000 monographs on business management and economics have been published by our students and are currently available to download from the Business and Economics Library Database at the IIU Press and Research Centre.
The Business Intelligence Journal is a semi-annual business management and economics publication totally produced at the BME which, along with the Business and Economics Sections of the SDS Journal, of the IIU-EU Journal and the Knowledge Management Journal are the main periodical publications where our Faculty and Doctoral Programmes students’ top quality selected knowledge based evidence findings are shared with the business and economics community worldwide.
BME has exceptional flexibility in meeting the needs of its educational and research activities, with a broad range of dedicated facilities, including our Business and Economics Library at the IIU Press and Research Centre, where over 200,000 academic articles and over 15,000 business and economics journals can be accessed and downloaded by our students.
The educational experience is augmented by a sophisticated and continuously evolving IT system that seamlessly integrates technology throughout the department.
The BME's unmatched financial resources have provided faculty and students with the flexibility to produce a continuous stream of innovations in education and research designed to meet—and anticipate—the evolving needs of business leaders everywhere.
There are seven business management related disciplines and five economics related disciplines at the BME, each one of them performing under guidance of the Chair of Discipline.
The DBA Program focuses on research creating management theory and knowledge that is relevant to management practice. Through a curriculum covering multiple disciplines and functional perspectives and through thesis work that typically includes field-based research, students master concepts and research skills that enable them to do research that is directly relevant to business problems.
Students in Management choose at least one discipline in which to anchor their research, though the most distinctive feature of Business Management is its multidisciplinary perspective. As the phenomena of general management cuts across economics, psychology, sociology, organizational behavior, and administrative sciences, our students develop discipline-based expertise in at least two substantive domains.
Our students’ dissertations typically focus on innovation, entrepreneurship, general management, comparative organizations, organizational learning, development of influence networks in strategic alliances, Business economics and transition from entrepreneurial to professional management in domestic and international settings.
Accounting is the system of recording, verifying, and reporting of the value of assets, liabilities, income, and expenses in the books of account (ledger) to which debit and credit entries (recognizing transactions) are chronologically posted to record changes in value. Such financial information is primarily used by lenders, managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers to make resource allocation decisions between and within companies, organizations, and public agencies. Accounting has been defined by the AICPA as "The art of recording, classifying, and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of financial character, and interpreting the results thereof."
The doctoral programs in Accounting and Finance, at a very fundamental level, focus on understanding the role of information and measurement systems for: Allocating resources among firms in the economy, and between departments or divisions of individual firms. Rewarding and monitoring the performance of managers. Formulating, executing and evaluating strategy by firm managers. Understanding the profitability of suppliers, products, customers, distribution channels, and business units. Managing franchise risk.
Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisation's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms "human resource management" and "human resources" (HR) have largely replaced the term "personnel management" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple sense, Human Resource Management (HRM) means employing people, developing their resources, utilizing maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement.
Doctoral programmes on this Discipline are developed by working at several areas of research, including organizational management, personnel administration, personnel management, manpower development and industrial management.
Marketing is defined as the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. The term developed from the original meaning which referred literally to going to market, as in shopping, or going to a market to sell goods or services. Marketing practice tends to be seen as a creative industry, which includes advertising, distribution and selling. It is also concerned with anticipating the customers' future needs and wants, which are often discovered through market research.
The DBA program in Marketing draws on a variety of underlying areas of research dealing with important marketing management problems centred on the immediate and future needs and wants of customers. Groups of BME faculty pursuing research in this field, and currently welcoming collaboration with doctoral students, are studying: consumer behaviour, marketing organization and control, product and pricing policy, consumer marketing and retailing, multinational marketing.
While the program encourages the use of field research to sense and define a problem, it does not have an ideological view on any single methodology as being superior to others in terms of the full scope of the research. Be it analytical, experimental, or qualitative, it is the appropriateness of the method in addressing the specific problem that matters. As a result, marketing faculty who work in one or more of these groups draw on a variety of underlying disciplines in research and consequently engage doctoral students in a broad spectrum of disciplinary bases.
The program draws on economic, behavioural, psychological and administrative theory to focus on marketing problems faced by the firm and its management. Through a combination of discipline- and field-based methods, the curriculum enables students to master concepts and research skills directly relevant to business problems. Candidates must come to understand the point of view of practicing managers and be able to bring theory and careful research to bear in illuminating important business problems.
Operations and / or Production management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of good quality goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. It is the management of resources, the distribution of goods and services to customers.
A Doctorate in Business Administration (DBA) in Operations Management concerns itself with a broad range of issues in manufacturing and service operations, including: management of new product and process development and technological innovation, operations management and strategy, logistics and supply chain management.
The faculty in this specialization come from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, such as economics, operations research, engineering, materials science, physics, psychology, and sociology. Faculty and doctoral student research integrates discipline-based approaches with a strong field-based, problem-oriented, and managerial perspective. Research themes in this area are diverse in perspective and problem focus, yet are integrated and define the intellectual synthesis the faculty seek to develop. These themes include: the power of learning and improvement, the role of capabilities in creating competitive advantage, the importance of process understanding and control, the leverage achieved through integration in high-performance operating systems.
Through a combination of discipline- and field-based methods, the curriculum enables students to master concepts and research skills directly relevant to business problems. Candidates must come to understand the point of view of practicing managers and be able to bring theory and careful research to bear in illuminating important business problems.
Information and knowledge management (IM or KM) is the collection and management of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or more audiences. This sometimes involves those who have a stake in, or a right to that information. Management means the organization of and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information. Throughout the 1970s this was largely limited to files, file maintenance, and the life cycle management of paper-based files, other media and records. With the proliferation of information technology starting in the 1970s, the job of information management took on a new light, and also began to include the field of Data maintenance. No longer was information management a simple job that could be performed by almost anyone. An understanding of the technology involved, and the theory behind it became necessary. As information storage shifted to electronic means, this became more and more difficult. By the late 1990s when information was regularly disseminated across computer networks and by other electronic means, network managers, in a sense, became information managers. Those individuals found themselves tasked with increasingly complex tasks, hardware and software. With the latest tools available, information management has become a powerful resource and a large expense for many organizations. In short, information management entails organizing, retrieving, acquiring and maintaining information.
A PhD in Information Management deals with a broad range of issues and includes working on the following areas of research at the BME: Transaction processing systems, management information systems, decision support systems, expert systems and business intelligence among others.
An executive or manager is expected to advise and determine the direction of the company, department or business unit. This takes two pieces of information. Where is the business now? Where is technology, or the market leading the business? You don’t have to follow the market or market leaders, but your direction must be consistent. This is the essence of leadership management linked to business policy. Nevertheless, leadership implies interaction of a broad range of factors which need to be taken into account when performing execution tasks like policy structuring and on going managing. In essence, leadership has a lot to do with developing team members’ capabilities to face and solve situations effectively.
The DBA in Leadership and Business Policy at the BME includes working in several areas of research, aiming to find evidence based knowledge oriented to integral business leadership, which will enable organisations to develop sustainable business policy and growth.
Change, Conflict and Crisis Management Studies Discipline deals with these three areas of research and research work at DBA or PhD studies programmes related to this Discipline become frequently involved in “sandwich” projects developed in collaboration with other disciplines or SDS Departments like Leadership and Policy, Psychology, Sociology, Neuroscience, Law, Systems Development, etc.
Change management is a structured approach to transitioning individuals, teams, and organizations from a current state to a desired future state. The current definition of Change Management includes both organizational change management processes and individual change management models, which together are used to manage the people side of change.
Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. It is the label for the variety of ways by which people handle grievances — standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be wrong. Those ways include such diverse phenomena as gossip, ridicule, lynching, terrorism, warfare, feuding, genocide, law, mediation, and avoidance. Which forms of conflict management will be used in any given situation can be somewhat predicted and explained by the social structure — or social geometry — of the case.
A crisis is a major, unpredictable event that threatens to harm an organization and its stakeholders. Although crisis events are unpredictable, they are not unexpected (Coombs, 1999). Crises can affect all segments of society – businesses, churches, educational institutions, families, non-profits and the government and are caused by a wide range of reasons. Although the definitions can vary greatly, three elements are common to most definitions of crisis: (a) a threat to the organization, (b) the element of surprise, and (c) a short decision time. Crisis management consists of methods used to respond to both the reality and perception of crises such as a Crisis Management Plan. Crisis management also involves establishing metrics to define what scenarios constitute a crisis and should consequently trigger the necessary response mechanisms. It consists of the communication that occurs within the response phase of emergency management scenarios.
Our Department is eclectic in methodologies and views of economics. There is no BME dogma or school. Students will acquire a critical perspective on the full range of approaches to macroeconomics. They will be well trained in neoclassical theory and in the theory of public choice, externalities and market failures. They will master the skills of sophisticated modern econometrics and understand pitfalls in its applications. They will gain respect for the power of contemporary mathematical models and also for history and for the insights of the great economists of the past.
This Discipline concerns developing and applying quantitative or statistical methods to the study and elucidation of economic principles. Also known as Econometrics, it combines economic theory with statistics to analyze and test economic relationships. It considers questions about the statistical properties of estimators and tests, while applied econometrics is concerned with the application of econometric methods to assess economic theories.
PhD Programmes include areas of research from methods which represent applications of standard statistical models, through the observation of data tending to reflect complex economic equilibrium conditions rather than simple behavioural relationships based on preferences or technology. Consequently, frequently research projects have developed methods for identification and estimation of simultaneous equation models. These methods allow researchers to make causal inferences in the absence of controlled experiments, from econometrics focused on time-series data, to methodology focused on cross-sectional and panel data.
Microeconomics looks at interactions through individual markets, given scarcity and government regulation. A given market might be for a product, say fresh corn, or the services of a factor of production, say bricklaying. The theory considers aggregates of quantity demanded by buyers and quantity supplied by sellers at each possible price per unit. It weaves these together to describe how the market may reach equilibrium as to price and quantity or respond to market changes over time. This is broadly termed demand-and-supply analysis. Market structures, such as perfect competition and monopoly, are examined as to implications for behaviour and economic efficiency. Analysis of change in a single market often proceeds from the simplifying assumption that behavioural relations in other markets remain unchanged, that is, partial-equilibrium analysis. General-equilibrium theory allows for changes in different markets and aggregates across all markets, including their movements and interactions toward equilibrium.
PhD Programmes on this discipline include involvement in a broad range of areas of research such as: Production-possibility frontier, opportunity cost, production theory basics, division of labour, comparative advantage, gains from trade, supply and demand, market equilibrium and failure, information economics, agriculture economics, and others.
Macroeconomics examines the economy as a whole to explain broad aggregates and their interactions "top down," that is, using a simplified form of general-equilibrium theory. Such aggregates include national income and output, the unemployment rate, and price inflation and sub aggregates like total consumption and investment spending and their components. It also studies effects of monetary policy and fiscal policy. Since at least the 1960s, macroeconomics has been characterized by further integration as to micro-based modelling of sectors, including rationality of players, efficient use of market information, and imperfect competition. This has addressed a long-standing concern about inconsistent developments of the same subject. Macroeconomic analysis also considers factors affecting the long-term level and growth of national income. Such factors include capital accumulation, technological change and labour force growth.
PhD Programmes on this discipline focus on research mainly involved in areas such as growth, depression and unemployment, inflation and monetary policy, fiscal policy and regulation, looked from an eclectic perspective which encourage students to adopt their own pragmatic view of things, based upon hard evidence based knowledge findings.
International trade studies determinants of goods-and-services flows across international boundaries. It also concerns the size and distribution of gains from trade. Policy applications include estimating the effects of changing tariff rates and trade quotas. International finance is a macroeconomic field which examines the flow of capital across international borders, and the effects of these movements on exchange rates. Increased trade in goods, services and capital between countries is a major effect of contemporary globalization.
PhD studies programmes frequently develop research involved with economic systems, as the branch of economics that studies the methods and institutions by which societies determine the ownership, direction, and allocation of economic resources. An economic system of a society is the unit of analysis. Among contemporary systems at different ends of the organizational spectrum are socialist systems and capitalist systems, in which most production occurs in respectively state-run and private enterprises. In between are mixed economies. A common element is the interaction of economic and political influences, broadly described as political economy. Comparative economic systems studies the relative performance and behaviour of different economies or systems.
This discipline deals with economic thought and methodology from History of ancient economic thought and practice, through the classical political economy, Marxism, neoclassical economics, Keynesian economics, Chicago School of economics, to other well known schools or trends such as the Austrian School, the Freiburg School, the School of Lausanne and Stockholm school.
PhD programmes are frequently involved in areas of research related to classical economics, Keynesian economics, the neoclassical synthesis, post-Keynesian economics, monetarism, new classical economics, and supply-side economics, ecological economics, institutional economics, evolutionary economics, dependency theory, structuralist economics, world systems theory, thermo economics, econophysics and technocracy.
As a result of research work performed at the BME and of research papers produced by students under Studies Validation process who have been supervised and guided at BME through their research work, a great deal of high quality research publications have been fostered, including 15,167 business management related written papers and 5,171 economics related written papers (up to December 2008), which can be accessed and downloaded by our students from the IIU Press and Research Centre’s Database.
Including highest quality research articles and evidence based relevant findings from Faculty, in collaboration with the Business Intelligence Service of London, UK, the BME publishes the Business Intelligence Journal as a semi-annual business management and economics academic and scientific open access publication, which has been granted the Seal of the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition of the European Union (SPARC Europe) and which has been evaluated under highest academic and scientific publication qualification by the Directory of Open Access Journals, who publishes its full content worldwide through the Internet.